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Title: FRQ 2: English-Indian Relations, 1600-1700


Tina Ly - January 26, 2011 02:35 AM (GMT)
The initial encounter between the English and the Native Americans along the Atlantic seaboard in the early decades of the 1600s produced reactions on both sides that ranged from suspicion and doubt to friendship and support. Yet a century later the Indians had largely been pushed off their lands and the Europeans controlled vast reaches of territory extending towards the Appalachian Mountains. Discuss the nature of the relationship between the English and the Indians, the techniques used by both sides to assert their interests, and the reasons the English were ultimately victorious.

I. Anglos and Powhatans
A. Good/Bad Relationship
1. raided, traded, and fought with one another
B. First Anglo-Powhatan War
1. ended in 1614 with the seal of marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe
2. they developed sweet tobacco together
3. 1622, Indians killed 347 whites including John Rolfe
C. Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646)
1. Indians were banished from the Chesapeake
2. it was proved that Indians and whites cannot live together
3. Indians declined due to disease (smallpox), disorganization (since they were not united, the whites could fight one tribe at a time), and disposability (Indians were pushed out)

II. The Indians’ New World
A. The Europeans’ arrival in the New World shocked Native Americans and caused many changes
1. Horses altered Indian lifestyles, especially in the Sioux tribe
2. Disease was by far the greatest change
-Indian blood lacked natural resistance to diseases
3. Native Americans wanted firearms, eventually causing tensions with other tribes and whites
4. Indians tried to engage in the trans-Atlantic economy
5. Indians were pushed out by war and disease

III. Indian and White Troubles
A. Tuscarora Indians
1. 1711, Tuscarora Indians attacked
2. The Carolinians successfully defended themselves
-Indians were sold into slavery
-others traveled north and eventually became the 6th nation of the Iroquois Confederacy
3. 1720, the Indians along the Atlantic seaboard had been cleared out

IV. Puritans vs. Indians
A. Initial relations with the natives were friendly.
1. A Wampanoag named Squanto befriended and helped the settlers
2. white—Wampanoag peace agreement was signed
3. the treaty and the first Thanksgiving symbolized good relationships
B. Pequot War
1. started in 1637 when whites wiped out a Pequot village on the Mystic River in Connecticut
2. Pequots were nearly wiped out as a tribe
3. their relationship had turned for the worst
4. Puritans attempted to convert Indians to Christianity
D. Disunity/King Philip's War
1. 1675, Metacom (King Philip) attempted to unite local Indian tribes
2. Metacom and his warriors attacked English villages
3. suffered a great defeat when his village was surrounded and destroyed


Helia Ng - January 31, 2011 12:56 AM (GMT)
Hm, I think you misunderstood the prompt x] it's asking for the nature of relationship, techniques, and reasons why English were victorious :o but oh well this really helped with the facts though :) Here's mine:


Thesis: Although at first peaceful and friendly, the white-Indian relationship gradually deteriorated as more settlers began to pour in and as settlers began to push inward. Due to the diseases brought in by the white settlers and the Indians’ passive nature and disunity, whites were able to fulfill their greedy desire for more land.

Nature:
- at first was friendly (as shown by Powhatan Indians & John Smith and Puritans & Wampanoag- Thanksgiving, peace treaty)
- as settlers poured in, however, tension arose and increased as settlers pushed Indians off their land
- many whites saw Indians as uncivilized & barbarians
- Indians saw whites as intruders later…wanted to get land back
- war erupts (Powhatan Wars 1614 & 1644-46, Pequot War 1637)
- both of these wars (one in south and one in north) gave way to bad relations between the whites & Indians and the idea that whites and Indians can’t live together peacefully (development of reservations system later)

Techniques:
- some whites tried to “civilize” Indians by converting
- most whites wanted the Indians’ lands & want to push them out to settle
- Indians were passive and attempted for peaceful relations
- When friendly relations fail, resort to violence in attempt to take land back

Reasons:
- 3D’s: disease, disunity, disposability
- Not exposed to white’s diseases (esp. smallpox); died by the thousands
- Tribes for independent
- Firearms; more technology





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